Education System in Turkmenistan
The Education System in Turkmenistan is based on centralized structural
framework of the Soviet system. However, required modifications are
underway to make the Education more country specific, as Government is
aiming to produce more efficient work force, which can take active part
in commercial activities. Educational reforms also include cultural
objectives, for example the writing of a new history of Turkmenistan,
the training of multilingual cadres able to function in Turkmen,
English, and Russian, and the implementation of alphabet reform in
Education in Turkmenistan is provided free of cost. Schooling starts from the Kindergarten (bagcha ) and Primary School (mekdep ). Attendance in Schools is compulsory from grade 1 through 8. After completion of grade 8, students are examined and provided admission into technical, continuing, and discontinuing tracks.
Further, the Primary and Secondary Education system is being restructured according to the western model. Schools in Turkmenistan follow a standardized pattern of Education. About 77% Schools provide instructions in Turkmen language, while some schools instruct in Russian as well. The Ministry of Education of Turkmenistan is responsible for Education in Turkmenistan at all levels.
The curriculum followed by schools is standardized, allowing little variation among the country's school districts. The prescribed humanities curriculum for the ninth and tenth grades places the heaviest emphasis on native language and literature, history, physics, mathematics, Turkmen or Russian language, chemistry, foreign language, world cultures, and physical education. A few elective subjects are available.
After completion of secondary school, students may continue their education at one of the university or institutes of higher education. Admission to higher education institutions is extremely competitive. Generally students need to write entrance examination for admission to higher education.